NGT CZ Grants Liberty to Raj Govt Dept to Address Urgency of Adverse Impacts on Dam Storage Capacity During Rainy Season

30th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The National Green Tribunal (NGT) Central Zone Bench of Justice Sheo Kumar Singh, Judicial Member, in Bhopal did not pass any orders in Original Application No. 06/2023 (CZ) on May 29, 2023. The tribunal cited that the matter falls under the internal working of the agency and the Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project Corporation Limited.

The applicant, Dinesh Bothra, filed the matter against the Union of India and others, alleging non-compliance with the Sustainable Sand Mining Management Guidelines, 2016, and the Enforcement and Monitoring Guidelines for Sand Mining, 2020. The Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project Corporation Limited (ERCPCL), representing the State of Rajasthan's Department of Mines, issued online bids and invited tenders for the reclamation of storage capacity of Bisalpur Dam through desilting in District Tonk, Rajasthan.

The contention of the applicant is that the scope of work, as defined on page 73 of the tender document, primarily involves sand mining. The work is described as the removal of silt/sand/gravel mixed overburden deposited in the submergence of Bisalpur Dam, District Tonk, Rajasthan, using mechanical means such as dredgers, etc. The tender, which is issued for a contract period of 240 months (20 years), involves the removal of sand from the dam. However, the respondent state authorities issued the tender without preparing the District Survey Report and classified it as desilting work.

The NGT Bench has been reported that if dredging of rivers and canals is done for the purpose of maintaining the canals, it does not require environmental clearance. However, if mining is conducted for profit-making purposes and as a commercial venture involving dredging and desilting, then all the provisions of the Environment Impact Notification of 2006 and its subsequent amendments should be applied to the project. This interpretation was reiterated in the judgment passed by the Hon'ble High Court in the matter of Writ Petition (PIL) No. 93 of 2015, Jai Prakash Badoni vs. Union of India & Ors, and another connected writ petition (PIL) No. 95 of 2015, Shakti Sangh Priya vs. State of Uttarakhand & Ors.

The Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project Corporation Limited informed the tribunal that a committee called the Mittal Committee was constituted to submit a report on the desilting of reservoirs, dredging for upkeep and maintenance of structures, channels, and averting natural disasters.

Unlike the applicant, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), and all other respondents submitted that it is not a commercial activity and does not require an environmental clearance. However, the NGT Bench stated that "It is a mixed question of facts, laws, economy, and ecology and requires replies from all respondents with detailed arguments."

The Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project Corporation Limited stated that no desilting work has been initiated yet, and no machinery has been installed for desilting purposes. However, it also mentioned that desilting will not be possible after June due to the rainy season, which may adversely affect the storage capacity of the dam. This could directly or indirectly impact the general public and result in a shortage of drinking water and water for irrigation purposes.

The NGT Bench noted, "In light of the rainy season and the urgency of the matter, the department is at liberty to proceed in accordance with the law, subject to the final decision of this Tribunal."

Although I.A. No. 05/2023 has been disposed of, OA No. 06/2023 (CZ) and I.A. No. 30/2023 will be further discussed on July 21, 2023. 

NGT seeks reports from MoEF&CC and HP Govt on Kufri's degrading environment

29th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The Himachal Pradesh State Pollution Control Board has reported to the National Green Tribunal (NGT) several violations causing damage to the environment, including the degradation of natural vegetation. It has observed that more than a thousand horses and ponies are employed in a small area, which exceeds the carrying capacity of the area. In addition, solid waste management is not scientific, leading to significant pollution in the area.

In the matter of Shailendra Kumar Yadav versus State of H.P., Original Application No. 187/2023, the NGT Principal Bench sought a factual report through its Order dated 13.03.2023. To accomplish this, it constituted a joint committee comprising the Divisional Forest Officer, Shimla; the Regional Officer, MoEF&CC, Chandigarh; the State PCB; and the District Magistrate, Shimla.

Shailendra Kumar Yadav raised issues related to the disturbance caused at Kufri due to unscientific management of tourist activities, including the employment of a large number of horses in a small area, which was affecting natural vegetation, local ecology, and damaging the environment on a large scale.

It is said that Kufri was the first place in India to be developed for alpine skiing sport by the British. The country's first winter sports club was established here. This was possible because of the lush deodar forest that resulted in abundant snowfall during the winter months from late November to the end of February. This ensured adequate water supply and moisture required for trees and forest fauna in the area, as well as continuous recharging of many natural water sources in the area. However, due to the callous attitude of state authorities, the rising number of horses, and other local reasons, snowfall in the area has continuously declined over the last two decades. As a result, water resources are drying up, and Shimla town itself remains devoid of snow for most of the winter season. Several steps were taken to encourage skiing activities in the area and promote tourism, but this has also adversely affected the ecological balance. Currently, there are about 700-800 horses operating in a small area of 8-10 square kilometers in and around the tourist village of Kufri, which is on the edge of the reserve forest and catchment area. The uncontrolled movement of horses has irreparably damaged the flora and fauna of this ecosystem, disrupting the food chain. The continuous movement of horses has severely damaged the beautiful forest trail and caused further damage to tree roots. The local administration has provided a large area as a parking place for horses in the prohibited forest area. After a day's work, the owners of these horses let them enter the adjoining forests, causing severe damage to the deodar tree roots, as well as the flora and fauna in that area. Naked tree roots, dry trees, shrubs, and heaps of stinking horse dung can be seen throughout the area. A particular patch of forest, approximately one kilometer from Kufri on the Chail-Kufri Road, has been severely damaged by horse owners who constructed an illegal road using a JCB machine. The forest authorities were aware of this but failed to take any action.

During the hearing on May 25th, 2023, the bench, consisting of Justice Sudhir Agarwal (Judicial Member) and an Expert Member, sought comments from the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) and the Government of Himachal Pradesh through the Additional Chief Secretaries/Principal Secretaries of Tourism and Environment for the implementation of the report.

The matter is further listed for July 12th, 2023.

Delhi Government's Comprehensive Plan Aims to Clean Yamuna River by 2025

26th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The Delhi Government, led by Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal, is making proactive efforts to achieve the complete cleaning of the Yamuna River by 2025. This ambitious initiative aims to restore the river's ecological balance and improve the overall environmental quality in the region. In a press conference held today, Water Minister Saurabh Bhardwaj shared the government's progress and highlighted key milestones achieved thus far.

The comprehensive plan includes strategic initiatives to address longstanding pollution issues and modernize the sewage system in Delhi. The government aims to achieve complete self-reliance in sewage treatment, with a target of 813 million gallons per day (MGD) by December 2023. This will ensure that the city's sewage treatment capacity meets its demands. By June 2024, the treatment capacity is set to increase to 964 MGD, providing a significant buffer for future requirements.

Saurabh Bhardwaj emphasized the government's proactive approach towards cleaning the Yamuna River and modernizing the sewage system in Delhi. He highlighted the achievements made since 2015, including the addition of 619 new unauthorised colonies to the sewer network, the laying of 2,371 kilometers of sewer lines, the procurement of 200 sewer cleaning machines, and the treatment of 174 MGD sewage. The government has also focused on upgrading 13 Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) to handle industrial waste according to modern standards.

The government's plan includes a six-step action plan announced by Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal. These steps involve increasing sewage treatment capacity, in-situ treatment of major drains, upgradation of CETPs, linking community toilets and JJ clusters to the sewage system, increasing household sewage connections, and desilting and rehabilitating the sewerage system.

Saurabh Bhardwaj provided details on the progress made, stating that the sewage treatment capacity has increased from 373 MGD in 2015 to 547 MGD currently. The length of sewer lines has expanded from 7,429 kilometers to 9,800 kilometers, and the number of colonies connected to the sewer system has risen from 220 to 839. The government's efforts have also included the deployment of 200 Automatic Sewer Cleaning Machines to clean the sewage lines in the city.

Highlighting the amount of sewage generated in Delhi, the Minister stated that approximately 792 MGD of sewage is produced daily, with a current shortfall of 160 MGD in treatment capacity. However, with the completion of new Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs), the capacity will increase to 727 MGD by next month, reducing the shortfall to just 8 percent. The target for December 2023 is to treat 814 MGD of sewage, which exceeds the current generation. By June 2024, the government aims to treat 964 MGD of sewage, providing a surplus of 21 percent.

To tackle the pollution caused by drains, the government has been successful in trapping 13 out of 18 major drains fully, with the remaining five partially trapped. Notably, the ongoing project of desilting the Najafgarh drain has completed 36 kilometers of the total length. The government plans to divert all major drains and sub-drains to STPs by the end of 2023, improving the efficiency of the treatment process.

Delhi Jal Board (DJB) has taken the responsibility of upgrading 13 CETPs from the Delhi State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation (DSIIDC). These upgraded CETPs will conform to modern standards for the treatment of heavy industrial waste.

Dialogue on Plastics Pollution and Environmentally Sustainable Plastics Trade Makes Strides Towards Concrete Outcomes

26th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The Dialogue on Plastics Pollution and Environmentally Sustainable Plastics Trade achieved significant progress during its latest meeting, as coordinators unveiled a draft vision and potential outcome elements for the upcoming 13th Ministerial Conference (MC13) in February 2024. This milestone, the result of two years of intensive work, marks a crucial step towards attaining tangible and effective results at MC13, according to the coordinators. The meeting, co-chaired by Ambassador Omar Zniber of Morocco and Ambassador Chenggang Li of China, facilitated the discussions.

Morocco, on behalf of the Dialogue's coordinators, presented the "draft zero" of the outcome elements, emphasizing the commitment to address the global challenge of plastics pollution. The draft outlines shared principles and priorities for collective action, aiming to tackle this pressing issue effectively.

The principles put forth include fostering collaboration and cooperation with other international organizations to avoid duplicating efforts, addressing challenges faced by World Trade Organization (WTO) members, particularly least-developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing countries (SIDs), ensuring transparency, and engaging openly with relevant stakeholders.

Among the priorities highlighted is collaborating with the World Customs Organization (WCO) to support amendments to the Harmonized System (HS) for traded goods. This would lead to improved monitoring and regulation of plastics trade. Additionally, the draft underscores the importance of supporting the timely conclusion of United Nations negotiations on a binding instrument for plastics pollution by 2024. Other priorities involve promoting sustainable non-plastic substitutes, alternatives, and re-use systems, as well as facilitating access to technologies for environmentally sound waste management.

The document also mentions the possibility of including annexes that offer a selection of trade policy options, derived from discussions, for participating members to voluntarily adopt and implement.

The coordinators of the Dialogue, representing Australia, Barbados, China, Ecuador, and Morocco, highlighted the urgent need for action in light of the dire state of plastics pollution. They commended the substantial efforts leading to the development of the draft outcome elements, emphasizing that it would serve as a powerful signal of support for the upcoming second round of negotiations of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) in Paris from 29 May to 2 June. These negotiations aim to establish a multilateral binding instrument to reduce plastics pollution by 2024.

The coordinators also acknowledged recent technical guidelines for the sustainable management of plastic waste adopted by the Basel, Rotterdam, and Stockholm Conventions. They stressed the necessity of providing support to LDCs and SIDs, which bear the brunt of severe plastic pollution and often face challenges in accessing adequate financing.

Participants welcomed the draft document and offered initial feedback on various aspects. Many emphasized the importance of coordination with ongoing international processes. Some suggested prioritizing support for the ongoing negotiation process at the INC before delving into the implementation of a legal instrument that is not yet in existence. Recommendations included incorporating best practices into the document's annex and ensuring its evolving nature beyond MC13.

Collective actions emerged as a focal point, with participants proposing a range of measures to address highly polluting products. Additionally, there were suggestions to prioritize environment-friendly substitutes rather than solely focusing on alternatives. The coordinators urged further consultations on the cooperation proposals submitted to the WCO.

The chairs requested members and stakeholders to provide feedback by 26 June to facilitate document revisions and its circulation before the summer break. They encouraged co-sponsors to work towards a consensus on a high-quality final draft MC13 Ministerial Statement in December, while also urging more members to engage in the Dialogue.

Four Cheetahs Die and Cubs in Critical Condition: NTCA Forms Steering Committee for Cheetah Project

26th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

In a setback for the ambitious Project Cheetah, four cheetahs out of the 20 translocated from Namibia and South Africa have tragically died. Adding to the distress, two cheetah cubs are currently in a hopeless condition. The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has taken swift action in response to the incident by constituting a Cheetah Project Steering Committee. This decision was made during a meeting chaired by the Director General of Forest & Special Secretary, with the Additional Chief Secretary of the Government of Madhya Pradesh in attendance.

Dr. Rajesh Gopal, Secretary General of the Global Tiger Forum in New Delhi, has been appointed as the Chairman of the newly formed committee, while Subhoranjan Sen, APCCF-Wildlife, has been named as the Member Convener. Additionally, there are eight other members who will contribute their expertise to the committee's mandate.

To ensure comprehensive guidance and expertise, a consulting panel of international cheetah experts has been established. This panel includes Prof. Adrian Tordiffe, a Veterinary Wildlife Specialist from the University of Pretoria, South Africa; Dr. Laurie Marker from the Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF) in Namibia; Dr. Andrew John Fraser from Farm Olievenbosch, South Africa; and Mr. Vincent van dan Merwe, Manager of the Cheetah Metapopulation Project at The Metapopulation Initiative in South Africa.

The Steering Committee's primary responsibilities include reviewing and monitoring the progress of cheetah introduction to the Madhya Pradesh Forest Department and the NTCA. They will also examine the possibility of opening the cheetah habitat for eco-tourism while suggesting necessary regulations. Moreover, the committee will explore ways to engage local communities in the project activities.

The committee is expected to operate for a two-year period and hold monthly meetings, in addition to conducting field visits as required. They have the authority to invite any expert for consultation when needed. Furthermore, the panel of international cheetah experts will be consulted or even invited to India based on specific requirements.

The NTCA, under the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change, will facilitate the committee's work. As per the existing rules, the travel costs for non-official members and other incidental expenses will be borne by the NTCA.

This recent development underscores the challenges and complexities involved in the conservation and reintroduction of cheetahs in India, emphasizing the need for careful and meticulous planning to ensure the success of Project Cheetah. 

Green Court Pronounces Judgment in  Mining Case, Orders ₹15.24 Crores Compensation and Conservation Measures

26th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

Enviro Annotations 24th May 2023 Weekly issue covers:

1) National Green Tribunal Calls for Immediate Action on Solid and Liquid Waste Management for Country’s Environmental Protection

2) Union Ministry amends EIA Notification, Pump Storage Projects need Prior EC

3) Editorial: Preserving Planet's Biodiversity: A Collective Responsibility

4) New Research Warns of Climate Change's Devastating Impact on Species and Urges Immediate Action

5) Green Court Pronounces Judgment in  Mining Case, Orders ₹15.24 Crores Compensation and Conservation Measures

6) Maharashtra Leads in Sewage Treatment Gap: NGT's Alarming Findings

7) Urban Climate Film Festival Promotes Climate Awareness in Urban Settlements

8) NCSCM promotes sea turtle conservation on the eve of World Turtle Day 2023

9) Organic Nanotubes Revolutionise Light -Harvesting for Solar Cells and More

10) Disaster Risk Financing: Investing in Safety, Health, and Sustainability

11) Delhi Government's "City of Lakes" Project Transforming National Capital

12) Delhi Government Challenges National Green Tribunal's Order in Supreme Court

13) Transport Minister calls for continued collaboration to shape Delhi's EV policy

14) Delhi Govt. Implements Measures to Combat Industrial Pollution

15) EAC Raises Concerns Over Forest Clearance and Water Management in Coal Mining Projects; NALCO Withdraws EC Transfer Application

16) EAC Industry-2 Recommends EC Amendment in Chemplast Sanmar's PVC Paste Resin Plant accounting November 2021 Data CEPI Score

New Notification Sets Emission Standards and Siting Criteria for Hot Mix Plants

20th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has published a notification regarding the emission standards and siting criteria of hot mix plants. See/Listen on YouTube

Lt. Governor of Delhi Inspects Chains of Najafgarh Drain

20th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

Lieutenant Governor of Delhi Vinay Kumar Saxena, inspected the inlet drains of Najafgarh drain in Gurugram district on Saturday. He conducted inspections of Leg A, Leg B, and Leg C. The Chief Executive Officer of Gurugram Metropolitan Development Authority (GMDA), P.C. Meena, and Deputy Commissioner Nishant Kumar Yadav welcomed the Lieutenant Governor's arrival in Gurugram and provided detailed information on the works related to the inlet channel.

The Lieutenant Governor visited all three inlet legs near Bajghera, Dharampur, and Dhankot to gather information about the activities related to water purification. Additionally, discussions were held on finding solutions to the problems in areas affected by waterlogging in Gurugram district along with the Najafgarh drain. He suggested the preparation of projects for small drains in waterlogged areas and the implementation of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on them, in order to prevent polluted water from entering the Najafgarh drain and to keep the Yamuna River clean. During this visit, P.C. Meena, the CEO of GMDA, provided detailed information about the works carried out on the inlet legs through the Municipal Corporation and GMDA.

The Lieutenant Governor also viewed video reports of the ongoing works on the inlet drain in Gurugram district. He gave instructions to complete the tasks related to the inlet drain and waterlogged areas before the upcoming monsoon season. After reviewing various reports and assessing the situation, he expressed satisfaction and said that good work has been done here, and small experiments should be conducted to further improve these works. Officials from the Delhi government also provided their suggestions on various subjects during this occasion.

The event was attended by Gurugram's Sub-Divisional Magistrate Ravindra Kumar Yadav, Engineer-in-Chief of Irrigation and Water Resources Department, Haryana, Birendra Singh, and Engineer-in-Chief of the Health and Engineering Department, Asim Khanna, along with officials from the concerned departments of Delhi and Haryana.

World Migratory Bird Day 2023 Celebrated, Emphasizing Water's Significance for Migratory Birds

13th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

World Migratory Bird Day 2023 was celebrated today with a strong focus on the theme "water and its importance for migratory birds". This annual event serves as a platform to advocate for the conservation of migratory birds and their habitats, emphasizing the significance of water ecosystems for these avian travelers.

Migratory birds heavily rely on various aquatic habitats throughout their life cycles, including inland and coastal wetlands, rivers, lakes, streams, marshes, and ponds. These vital water sources serve as essential sites for feeding, drinking, nesting, and resting during their long and arduous journeys.

However, the world's aquatic ecosystems and the migratory birds depending on them face increasing threats. Human activities, such as the rising demand for water resources, pollution, and the impacts of climate change, have directly affected the availability of clean water and have led to challenges in the conservation of many migratory bird species.

World Migratory Bird Day serves as a global awareness-raising campaign to address the urgent need for the protection and preservation of migratory birds and their habitats. The campaign aims to raise global consciousness about the various threats faced by migratory birds, their ecological importance, and the importance of international cooperation in their conservation.

In India, the Government highlighted several events organized to commemorate the occasion. The National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), RMNH Bhubaneswar, Zoological Survey of India in Kolkata, and the National Institute of Himalayan Environment arranged various programs and activities. The National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management (NCSCM) conducted a cleanup and awareness program in the fishing village of Kovalam. 

All these event were focused on the Lifestyle for the Environment (LiFE) movement. 

Secretary, MNRE emphasizes the role of Bioenergy in Energy Transition

12th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

In association with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) organized a workshop on "Bioenergy for Sustainable Development: Case Studies and Best Practices" in New Delhi today. The event aimed to shed light on the role of bioenergy in India's energy transition and provide a platform for sharing case studies and best practices in the field.

During the inaugural session, Bhupinder Singh Bhalla, Secretary of MNRE, emphasized the urgency of the energy transition and highlighted the efforts made by the country thus far. He underlined the significance of bioenergy as a crucial component in achieving sustainable development goals. Dinesh Jagdale, Joint Secretary (Bioenergy), MNRE, stressed the increasing global importance of bioenergy and the need for workshops like this to invigorate the sector.

The workshop drew participation from a diverse range of stakeholders, including representatives from the industry, project developers, state implementing agencies, financial institutions, and officials from various ministries of the Government of India. The presence of these key stakeholders underscored the collaborative approach required to drive the growth of the bioenergy sector.

The workshop comprised multiple sessions focusing on case studies that highlighted the successful implementation of bioenergy projects across the country. These sessions covered a wide range of topics, including case studies of compressed biogas (CBG) plants utilizing press mud and segregated urban food waste, medium and small-sized biogas plants, and biomass plants with innovative supply chain management systems and pellet manufacturing. The workshop also addressed the importance of adhering to the Code of Practice for Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) in the bioenergy sector.

A significant highlight of the event was a panel discussion on financing waste-to-energy biomethanation projects and the role of innovation in driving the growth of the biomethanation sector. The discussion emphasized the need for new financing mechanisms to establish robust biomass supply chains and enhance the reliability of the bioenergy sector.

The workshop, organized as part of the Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav (AKAM), symbolizes India's commitment to achieving energy independence and sustainable development. By fostering collaboration and knowledge exchange among stakeholders, the workshop aimed to accelerate the adoption of bioenergy solutions, contributing to India's renewable energy goals and reducing its carbon footprint.

The event concluded on a positive note, with participants expressing optimism about the future of bioenergy in India. The workshop served as a platform for generating ideas, sharing experiences, and creating networks to propel the bioenergy sector forward in line with India's vision of a clean and green energy future.

As the nation continues its march towards a sustainable future, workshops like these play a pivotal role in promoting renewable solutions and fostering innovation in the energy sector, ensuring a cleaner and greener tomorrow for India and the world.

Coal Ministry Invites Proposals for Research & Development in Coal Sector

12th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The Ministry of Coal invites research proposals from Academic Institutions and Research Organizations. Thrust Areas for Research & Development in coal sector includes the following: -

(i)  Advanced technology/methodology for improvement of production & productivity from underground mining and open cast Mining,

(ii)  Improvement of safety, health and environment

(iii) Waste to wealth

(iv) Alternative use of coal and clean coal technologies

(v) Coal beneficiation and utilization

(vi) Exploration

(vii) Innovation and indigenization (Under Make-in-India concept)

The guidelines, format and online submission facility available at the website: https://scienceandtech.cmpdi.co.in and the last date of submission of proposal is 15th July, 2023. 

Ministry Notifies Rules for Sections 49N and 49-O of Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, Amended in 2022

12th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 (53 of 1972), serves as the legal foundation for safeguarding various species of wild animals, managing their habitats, and regulating the trade of products derived from them. The Act underwent its latest amendment in 2022 with the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2022, which became effective from April 1, 2023.

According to Section 49 N of the Act, individuals involved in captive breeding or artificial propagation of any listed species mentioned in Appendix I of Schedule IV are required to submit a license application within ninety days from the commencement of the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2022. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has released the Rules under Section 49 N through a Gazette Notification dated April 24, 2023. These rules can also be accessed on the ministry's website at http://moef.gov.in.

All individuals engaged in captive breeding or artificial propagation of any listed species in Appendix I of Schedule IV are urged to submit their license applications in the prescribed form, as per the Rules framed under Section 49 N of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, on or before June 29, 2023.

For more information and to obtain the necessary forms, interested parties are advised to refer to the Gazette Notification and visit the ministry's official website. Compliance with these regulations is crucial for ensuring the protection and conservation of our wildlife resources.

Consultants facing payment issues in a legal matter

12th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The NGT Western Zone Bench, in a hearing on the Execution Application No. 12 of 2019 (WZ) in Original Application No. 134 of 2015 (WZ) titled Nanik Rupani & Anr versus Secretary, MoEF, New Delhi & Ors., on May 10, 2023, has clarified that there is no requirement for Lonavala Municipal Council to reimburse Genstru Consultants Pvt. Ltd. under the execution order being sought.

The bench, comprising Justice Dinesh Kumar Singh, Judicial Member, and Dr. Vijay Kulkarni, Expert Member, emphasized that there was no previous order from the Tribunal stating that the applicants would bear any expenses. The directive stated that Lonavala Municipal Council is responsible for the restoration work, and the costs incurred would be jointly paid by Vikas Developers and Madan Lal Gupta to Lonavala Municipal Council.

In relation to the judgment dated February 28, 2017, an additional affidavit dated April 12, 2023, was presented, revealing that Vikas Developers and Madan Lal Gupta had deposited Rs. 40 lakhs with Lonavala Municipal Council as per the Tribunal's order. Subsequently, the Chief Officer of Lonavala Municipal Council contacted Ashish Vaid, an applicant, and requested quotations from Genstru Consultancy Pvt. Ltd. for consultancy services regarding the design of a retaining structure at Vikas Valley Plot, Khandala.

Genstru Consultancy Pvt. Ltd. provided an offer on August 17, 2017, to deliver the required consultancy services. On August 30, 2017, Lonavala Municipal Council wrote a letter to their counsel, informing them about the deposit made by Mr. M.L. Gupta and requesting approval from the National Green Tribunal to appoint Genstru Consultancy Pvt. Ltd. and utilize the allocated funds for the area's restoration. Subsequently, Genstru Consultancy Pvt. Ltd. raised an invoice dated March 31, 2018, amounting to Rs. 2,95,000/- for their services in compliance with the judgment dated February 28, 2017.

Upon receiving the invoice, Vikas Valley CHS Ltd. requested Lonavala Municipal Council on April 12, 2018, to disburse the amount from the Rs. 40 lakhs deposited by Vikas Developers and Madan Lal Gupta. Further discussions took place between the Chief Officer of Lonavala Municipal Council and Ashish Vaid on August 3, 2018, during which the Chief Officer requested an advance payment to Genstru Consultancy Pvt. Ltd. in the name of Vikas Valley Plot, Khandala. Lonavala Municipal Council assured Vikas Valley CHS Ltd. of reimbursement from their end. Relying on this assurance, Vikas Valley CHS Ltd. released an amount of Rs. 1,08,000/- to Genstru Consultancy Pvt. Ltd. on August 14, 2018, with the expectation of prompt restoration of the area.

The applicants have now filed a plea seeking reimbursement of the amount, Rs. 1,08,000/-, to Vikas Valley CHSL. While the additional affidavit has been served to all parties involved, Vikas Developers and Madan Lal Gupta have not filed any written objections, and it is reported that Madan Lal Gupta has passed away. Lonavala Municipal Council, represented by its Chief Officer, has responded by filing an affidavit dated May 9, 2023. They argue that an amount of Rs. 1,77,000/- should be paid to Genstru Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and an amount of Rs. 1,08,000/- should be paid to the applicants, but they believe that these reliefs should not be granted as the applicants are not entitled to them. Lonavala Municipal Council also mentions a letter dated November 18, 2017, from Vikas Valley CHS Ltd. to Genstru Consultants Pvt. Ltd., indicating that Lonavala Municipal Council had already sought approval from the National Green Tribunal for the payment of fees amounting to Rs. 2.50 lakhs. However, if Lonavala Municipal Council fails to make the payment, Vikas Valley CHSL has agreed to cover the fees on behalf of Genstru Consultants Pvt. Ltd. Therefore, Lonavala Municipal Council opposes the plea for reimbursement of Rs. 1,77,000/- to Genstru Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and Rs. 1,08,000/- to the applicants.

Lonavala Municipal Council had also filed an affidavit clarifying that they have fully complied with the mentioned order in all respects. Consequently, they argue that the Execution Application is no longer valid, and the Execution Applicant has not contested this fact.

Another Cheetah dies in Kuno 

9th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

A tragic incident has occurred in Kuno National Park, where a female cheetah by the name of Daksha, translocated from South Africa, has passed away. The monitoring team discovered the injured feline on May 9th, 2023, at 10:45 am, and though veterinarians attempted to treat her wounds, she succumbed to her injuries at 12:00 noon on the same day. According to a statement released by the Government, initial investigations suggest that the injuries found on Daksha were the result of a violent interaction with a male cheetah during a courtship or mating attempt, which is a common occurrence. Given the circumstances of the incident, it was practically impossible for the monitoring team to intervene. The veterinary team is currently conducting an autopsy on the deceased cheetah as per the protocol.

This is the death of third Cheetah in the Project Cheetah.

Deputy Director-General Stresses WTO's Role in Climate-Friendly Agricultural Innovation

9th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

In a powerful address at the "Agriculture Innovation Mission (AIM) for Climate Summit" in Washington D.C., Deputy Director-General Jean-Marie Paugam of the World Trade Organization (WTO) highlighted the organization's crucial role in supporting climate-friendly innovation in agriculture. The summit, jointly organized by the United States and the United Arab Emirates, served as a platform to explore sustainable agricultural practices in the face of climate change.

Paugam's speech resonated with participants, emphasizing the potential of trade to expedite agricultural innovation. He called upon Ministers of Agriculture to collaborate with their trade counterparts to ensure the WTO effectively supports their climate-smart agricultural policies.

Paugam acknowledged the significance of collaboration with agricultural experts, national authorities, and international agencies in shaping the WTO's policies. Such collaboration fosters knowledge-sharing and strengthens the organization's understanding of critical issues faced by its 164 member countries.

Addressing the need for increased productivity and climate-sustainable agriculture, Paugam underscored that 75% of the solution lies in innovation. This requires investment, technology, and education. Paugam then outlined three key tools within the WTO's framework that can propel sustainable agricultural innovation.

Firstly, he stressed the importance of enhancing access to global markets by reducing tariffs. Paugam highlighted the existing disconnect between tariffs and climate concerns, where carbon-intensive products often face lower tariffs compared to environmentally friendly alternatives. By reducing tariffs, the dissemination of innovation and investment incentives can be accelerated.

Secondly, Paugam advocated for the transformation of "bad" subsidies into "good" subsidies. He referred to these sustainable subsidies as "green box" measures, covering support for innovation in climate-smart agriculture, infrastructure, research, education, and farmers' incomes. With approximately USD 600 billion allocated to agricultural support globally, Paugam urged the redirection of these funds towards sustainable practices.

Lastly, Paugam emphasized the importance of regulations. The WTO's science-based framework provides predictability in sanitary and phytosanitary measures for agricultural products. Paugam suggested utilizing this regulatory framework to enhance support for climate-smart agriculture. Additionally, he highlighted the trade facilitation agreement's role in reducing transaction costs for companies accessing international markets.

However, Paugam acknowledged that the efficient use of the WTO's framework to foster international cooperation in climate-smart agriculture and innovation remains a challenge. Stalled negotiations on market access and subsidies reform have hindered progress for nearly three decades. While discussions on sanitary and phytosanitary measures have shown promise, consensus on critical issues impacting agriculture, such as climate change, is lacking.

Paugam highlighted food security as an emerging topic that could bridge the gap between past and future negotiations. He called on Ministers of Agriculture to unite with their trade counterparts to ensure the WTO delivers effective support for climate-smart agricultural policies.

In conclusion, Deputy Director-General Jean-Marie Paugam's address at the "Agriculture Innovation Mission (AIM) for Climate Summit" shed light on the pivotal role of the WTO in driving climate-friendly innovation in agriculture. His call for collective action and cooperation between agricultural and trade officials aims to address the pressing challenges of climate change and propel sustainable agricultural practices into the future. 

Mass Mobilization of Mission LiFE Activities Held Across the Country

9th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

Mission LiFE organized a series of events across India to promote sustainable living ahead of World Environment Day. Activities included a painting competition, an interactive talk, a bird identification program, an awareness program on millet adoption, the release of scientific newsletters, and awareness programs on plastic bans and eco-friendly habits. Participants included students, researchers, and the general public, with a total of around 900 attendees. The events aimed to promote responsible tourism, wildlife conservation, and an eco-friendly lifestyle. 

NLCIL EIA Report reaches NGT in Appeal No. 2/2021/EZ seeking Quashing of EC

8th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

In the matter of Prafulla Samantray versus Union of India & Ors., Appeal No. 02 of 2021/EZ, in Eastern Bench of the National Green Tribunal, the final EIA Report January 2020, downloaded from the Parivesh Portal, has been submitted to the Tribunal. 

The appeal challenges the Environmental Clearance granted by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change to Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited (NLCIL) for its 3X800 MW Thermal Power Plant in the area of Talabira, part of the IB Valley in Jharsuguda district of Odisha.

The appellant, Prafulla Samantray, has sought the quashing of the Environmental Clearance dated 02.02.2021, alleging that the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report did not take various factors into consideration. The appellant also claims that the thermal plant is being set up in a critically polluted area, and the impacts on ambient air quality, water bodies, land health, etc., have not been well studied in the EIA report.

The NGT has stated that the matter requires consideration as considerable question of environment arises.

The report, under the details of "Project Location", as well "Scope of Baseline Study" shows that one of the nearest rivers is Bhedan river at 0.5 Km.  

The National Green Tribunal will hear the case and determine whether the Environmental Clearance granted to NLCIL should be quashed. The outcome of this case will have far-reaching implications for the future of environmental assessments and the protection of India's natural resources.

Experts evaluate progress of Project Cheetah, recommend release of five more cheetahs

8th May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

Today, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change issues a press release that provides information on the recent deaths of two cheetahs in the Project Cheetah. Sasha, a six-year-old female, died in March due to chronic renal insufficiency, a common problem in captive cheetahs. Uday, an adult male of uncertain age, developed acute neuromuscular symptoms just over a week after he was released from quarantine and unfortunately died later that same day. The cause of his death is still unknown, and further analysis is being conducted. However, it is noted that none of the other cheetahs in the project have shown similar symptoms, and they are all healthy and displaying natural behaviors. 

The Indian government announced today that a team of experts, directed by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), visited Kuno National Park on April 30, 2023, to assess the progress of Project Cheetah. The project's goal is to reintroduce cheetahs to their historical range in India, and so far, 20 cheetahs have been successfully translocated from southern Africa to the park in September 2022 and February 2023.

The team of experts evaluated all aspects of the project and provided a detailed report on the way forward. The reintroduction of cheetahs to the park has been challenging since it is the first intercontinental reintroduction of a wild, large carnivore species with no comparable historical precedent. However, all twenty cheetahs survived the initial capture, quarantine, and lengthy transport to the purpose-built quarantine and larger acclimatization camps in Kuno National Park.

Of the twenty translocated cheetahs, four have been released into free-ranging conditions in the park. Two males remain within the park, while a female named Aasha ventured twice to the East of Kuno National Park beyond the buffer zone but remained within the broader Kuno landscape. Another male named Pawan explored areas well beyond the park's boundaries and was darted by the veterinary team before being returned to an acclimatization camp in Kuno National Park. All released cheetahs are fitted with satellite collars, and monitoring teams have been employed to follow their movements 24/7, recording any information on their prey and behavior.

The team of experts examined most of the cheetahs from a distance and assessed the current procedures and protocols for managing the animals. Following discussions with the Forest Department officials in KNP, it was decided to release five more cheetahs (three females and two males) from the acclimatization camps into free-roaming conditions in Kuno National Park before the onset of the monsoon season in June. These released cheetahs will be monitored in the same way as those already released. The remaining ten cheetahs will remain in the acclimatization camps for the duration of the monsoon season, with some internal gates left open to allow them to utilize more space.

The project aims to contribute to global cheetah conservation efforts by providing up to 100,000 km2 of habitat in legally protected areas and an additional 600,000 km2 of habitable landscape for the species, restoring the unique ecological role cheetahs play in the carnivore hierarchy, and enhancing ecosystem health in India.

WTO DDG stresses the importance of international cooperation in tackling plastic pollution

3rd May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

Deputy Director-General Jean-Marie Paugam of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has emphasized the importance of international cooperation to tackle plastic pollution and achieve environmental objectives. Speaking at a public-private dialogue organized by "Sustainability Rounds," 

Paugam noted that the WTO has a vital role to play in preventing unnecessary trade barriers while accelerating environmental sustainability. He highlighted the significance of the WTO in facilitating the circulation of green technologies across countries to achieve environmental goals. 

Paugam also referred to the need for harmonizing definitions of single-use plastic bags internationally to create a more substantial market for alternatives and lower tariffs on such products. The WTO has been working on trade and the fight against plastic pollution for the past four to five years.  

NGT constitutes 8 member Committee in Ludhiana Gas Leak Case

2nd May 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The National Green Tribunal (NGT) intervened in the matter of media report regarding death of 11 persons, including three minors, at Ludhiana on account of gas leak in Giaspura area of the city on 30th April 2023. There was further report by The Hindu on 2nd May 2023 that a five member SIT to look into 11 deaths due to gas leak in Ludhiana, which NGT found suggesting that hydrogen sulphide could have led to the incident. The said gas could be from industrial waste dumped in the sewerage line. 

The NGT intervention is under Section 15 of the NGT Act for which it is necessary to ascertain the cause of the incident and remedial action taken and required, including measures to prevent such incidents in future and to compensate the victims by way of adequate compensation. 

The NGT has constituted an eight member fact-finding joint Committee to be headed by Chairman, Punjab Pollution Control Board (PPCB). Other members of the Committee will be Regional Director (North), CPCB, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow, nominee of Director, PGI Chandigarh, nominee of NDRF, State PCB, District Magistrate, Ludhiana and Commissioner, Municipal Corporation, Ludhiana. State PCB will act as nodal agency for coordination and compliance. The Committee may meet within one week from today and complete its task preferably within one month. It will be free to interact with any other department, institution or individual and undertaking visit to concerned sites. The Committee will be free to function online or offline as the situation may warrant. 

The Tribunal has sought a Report from the Committee on or before 30th June 2023. 

In the meanwhile, the District Magistrate, Ludhiana has been asked to ensure payment of compensation at the rate of Rs. 20 Lakhs each to the heirs of 11 persons who have died, deducting the amounts, if any, already paid within one month. The Committee may mention the details of persons who have died and persons injured with extent of injuries suffered by them. It may also recommend measures to be taken in future to prevent such incidents. 

MoEF&CC amends provisions under Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016

30th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has published a notification termed as the Plastic Waste Management (Amendment)Rules, 2023. The notification vide G.S.R. 318(E). dated 27th April 2023 amends certain provisions in the Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016 vide notification number G.S.R. 320 (E), dated 18th March 2016. 

The changes are in following rules:

Farmers liable to pay environmental compensation on stubble burning

29th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has notified G.S.R. 322(E) Dated 28th April 2023. It pertains to imposition and collection of environmental compensation for stubble burning. 

The rules are referred as the Commission for Air Quality Management in National Capital Region and Adjoining Areas (Imposition, Collection and Utilization of Environmental Compensation for Stubble Burning) Rules, 2023. 

The rules are applicable to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, State of Punjab, State of Haryana and National Capital Region of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. As the rules are applicable to farmers, it defines “Farmer” as the owner or occupier or cultivator of the farming or agricultural land.

As per the Rules, the Commission may impose and collect environmental compensation on farmers liable for burning stubble, at three different rates, such as :- 

(a) The Farmer having an area of land less than 2 acres shall pay an environmental compensation of Rs. 2500/- 

(b) The environmental compensation for Farmer having an area of land of 2 acres or more but less than 5 acres shall be Rs. 5000/- and

(c) The Farmers having an area of more than 5 acres shall have to pay an environmental compensation of Rs. 15000/-.

The environmental compensation shall be collected from the Farmer in the form of "challan", specified in the rules.

A Farmer has to pay the challan amount within 30 days from the date of issuance of challan. If the Farmer fails to pay the challan amount within the specified period , the Commission shall prepare a certificate specifying the amount due from the Farmer and forward the certificate along with the form of challan to the officer authorised by the respective State Government or, Union territory, as the case may be, who shall proceed to recover the amount specified thereunder from the Farmer as if it were an arrear of the land revenue. 

The officer of the respective State Government or, Union territory who maintains the land revenue record as prevalent in the respective State Government or, Union territory shall ensure that such record is marked with red entry against the Farmer where from the incident of stubble burning is found or reported to burn stubble or there is a proof to the effect that stubble burning has happened in the land.

The environmental compensation collected under this rule shall be deposited in the account of respective State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee.   

NGT directs remedial action for non-compliant stone crusher unit, dismisses claims of six other units in Ramnagar case

29th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The National Green Tribunal conducted a hearing on April 28, 2023, in response to I.A. No. 427/2023 in Original Application No. 396/2022 in the matter of Gopal Chandra Vanwassi versus SDM, Ramnagar and Ors. The Tribunal had previously directed the verification of allegations against sixteen units by a joint committee of State PCB and District Magistrate, Nainital. The committee filed a report on October 3, 2022, stating that seven units were non-compliant, eight had not yet established despite obtaining NOCs from the State, and one had not even obtained an NOC. The non-compliant units were given show cause notice for closure and levy of compensation. The eight stone crushers that had obtained NOCs were directed not to establish the same without Consent to Establish.

Based on the committee's report, the Tribunal directed the impleading of the 16 stone crushers as a party and issued notice to them to file their response. The State PCB was also directed to file further response. In its reply dated February 7, 2022, the PCB stated that seven non-compliant units had since rectified their shortcomings and were now compliant. Compensation was to be proposed for past violations.

On March 28, 2023, the Tribunal noted that while seven units were declared compliant, material in support of the compliance had not been filed. Thus, another committee was constituted to verify facts. Subsequently, six out of seven stone crushers declared by the PCB to be compliant filed an I.A. along with their reply.

The NGT Bench comprising of Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel, Chairperson; Justice Arun Kumar Tyagi, Judicial Member; and Dr. Afroz Ahmad, Expert Member, found that there was no material to rebut the factual status of the six compliant units. Therefore, no reverification was required for those units. However, compliance status for Badesha Stone Crusher would be reverified by the SPCB. The SPCB was directed to take remedial action in case of non-compliance and for past non-compliances as per law. As for the remaining nine units, since they had reportedly not yet started their operations, there was no cause of action as of that date.

NGT Quashes Sand Mining EC granted by SEIAA, UP in natural habitat of crocodiles

28th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The National Green Tribunal (NGT) Principal Bench quashes and sets aside the (Environmental Clearance (EC) dated 03.12.2021 granted by State Level Development Impact Assessment Authority, Uttar Pradesh in favour of R.N.S. Pvt. Ltd. The NGT, after a thorough deliberation of various legal perspective and considering duly verified factual positions of the proposed mining site being natural habitat of the crocodiles, stated that the EC suffers from patent illegality and is liable to be quashed/set aside. 

R.N.S. Pvt. Ltd. is held to be entitled to refund of the amounts deposited/paid with interest at the rate of 7.5% from the date of deposit/payment till realization/repayment thereof and the concerned respondents are directed to pay the amount deposited/ paid by R.N.S. Pvt. Ltd. with interest at the rate of 7.5% from the date of deposit/payment till realization/repayment thereof within three months from the date of receipt of a copy of the order dated 27th April 2023. 

In Appeal No. 07/2022 (I.A. No. 50/2022 & I.A. No. 51/2022), Ghanai S/o Binde, a resident of Naroghat, Kotra Jalaun, Uttar Pradesh, filed the appeal challenging the EC dated 03.12.2021 for proposed River Sand/Morrum mining, with sanctioned Lease Area 8.502 ha., at Gata No. 03GA, Khand No.-03, Village-Nandha, Orai, Jalaun, Uttar Pradesh. A Public hearing was conducted on 20.07.2021 by the project proponent through Green Enviro Engineers Pvt. Ltd., a Kanpur based EIA consultant.

Ghanai, the Appellant challenged the EC for proposed mining on two grounds that the proposed mining leased area is habitat of crocodiles who use the area for nesting and any mining at the site would be highly detrimental to the wild fauna and their nesting grounds and that the leased site is a rocky terrain with rocks exposed therein and there is no sufficient mineable mineral deposit which would suffice for the volume approved for mining in the impugned EC which would lead to illegal mining from nearby areas and adjoining land of the appellant.   

Interesting to note that during the process of hearings the Appellant stated that now he does not apprehend any loss to him and illegal mining in his land and he does not want to continue with the present appeal. The appellant has accordingly prayed that the appeal may be dismissed as withdrawn. 

The NGT perorated on various aspects including the question which first arises for consideration is as to whether the appellant is entitled as a matter of right and as being dominus litis to withdraw the appeal at the present stage of the proceedings. 

MoEF&CC Clarifies Manufacturing of Welded Pipes, Seamless Tubes, ASA does not require Environmental Clearance

27th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

We published the weekly issue of Enviro Annotations 26th April 2023. It has some interesting, insightful and informative contents on the latest environmental developments.


(1) FAC Recommends Restoration of CA provisions for Central Govt projects, double degraded forest land

(2) MoEF&CC Clarifies Manufacturing of Welded Pipes, Seamless Tubes, ASA does not require Environmental Clearance

(3) National Green Tribunal Eastern Zone Bench Orders Criminal Proceedings Against Mining Offenders and Odisha Govt. Officials

(4) NGT Chennai rules in favour of Sajida Wahab against M. P. Developers

(5) NGT proceedings on unscientific dumping of solid waste in Balrampur

(6) National Green Tribunal Dismisses Plea of Himachal Taxi Association to Increase Number of Tourist Vehicles to Rohtang Pass

(7) DM Report to NGT shows 3 CETPs in Ludhiana flouting disposal norms

(8) Revisiting Chernobyl after 37 years

(9) India’s First Ever Water Body Census Report, a giant step towards water body protection and water security

(10) Kejriwal calls for immediate solution as Delhi aims to become free from contaminated water

(11) Gautam Solar's high efficiency 10BB Mono Solar Panels to power Bhopal Airport

(12) Power to State Govt/UT Forest Officials

(13) Provision in EIA Notification to split EC

(14) ISRO Chairman Delivers Shriram Institute’s 57th Foundation Day Lecture

(15) Delhi Government constitutes Delhi Animal Welfare Board

(16) Distress grips Gurugram’s Greenwood City Colony as water supply remains scarce

(17) Dr. Priyanka Bharadwaj portrays on the vanishing Aravalli Ranges #6 and last of Series 

(18) Committee Chaired by Dr. Prashant Gargava Recommends Aggressive Action Plan for Air Pollution Control in Indo-Gangetic Plain

(19) Breakthrough bio-electronic device for measuring uric acid levels unveiled

(20) Global Gold CSR Award to Power Grid

(21) Grasim Industries Rehla gets EAC’s nod to increase and add co-products, Synergia Sciences seeks EC amendment on ETP, fuel; Committee decisions on Corel Pharma Chem and Supreme Dyechem raises questions

India and Hungary Explore Opportunities for Cooperation in Water Management

26th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

According to a Government Press release, yesterday, the first meeting of the Joint Working Group between India and Hungary for the implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on water management was held in New Delhi. The meeting covered a wide range of discussions on the challenges and initiatives taken in the water sector by both countries, including the issue of groundwater over-exploitation and the need for proper water management practices in India. A three-year working programme was signed to guide future cooperation between the two countries in water management, and both sides made detailed presentations on issues, challenges, initiatives, and success stories related to water management in their respective countries.

Six areas of priority for cooperation were identified and agreed upon, including management of extreme phenomena, exploration and management of groundwater, rejuvenation of rivers and water bodies, mitigation of the impact of climate change on water resources, protection and preservation of water resource quality, and training and capacity building. An MoU was signed between the Ministry of Interior of Hungary and the Ministry of Jal Shakti of India on 16th October 2016 to strengthen technological, scientific, and management capabilities of both parties in water management. Areas of cooperation between the two countries include integrated water resources management, water and wastewater management, and water-related education, research, and development.

A Joint Working Group (JWG) has been constituted with members representing both countries to implement the objectives of the MoU. The Indian side of the JWG includes Mr. Subodh Yadav, Joint Secretary (GW, Admin and IC), Ministry of Jal Shakti, as team leader, and experts from CWC, NMCG, CWPRS, and CGWB. The Hungarian side is led by Mr. Peter Kovacs, Water Director, Ministry of Interior, Government of Hungary.

Cooperation in water management among countries and improved understanding of the challenges and benefits of water cooperation can help build mutual respect, understanding, and trust, promoting peace, security, and long-term economic growth. Open discussion of the challenges defining our water resources today is driving cooperative action, decision-making, and political commitment. Countries are promoting a consultative culture and improving participatory capacities, aiding in the delivery of advantages in many sectors, including collaborative water management.

To showcase successful interventions under the National Mission for Clean Ganga, a field visit for the team of Hungarian experts to Varanasi was organized today. The meeting of the JWG has ushered in another milestone in the ongoing cooperation between India and Hungary in various sectors. Both sides aim to gain insight from one another and share experiences through collaboration in the field of water management.

EC Splitting Provision in EIA Notification

26th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has notified an amendment in the EIA Notification 2006. The amendment is brought through S.O. 1832(E) Dated 21st April 2023.

The EIA Notification bearing S.O. 1533 (E) dated the 14th September 2006 has provision for transferring the prior Environmental Clearance (EC) from one legal person to another legal person during the validity period. However,  the said notification does not have explicit provision for splitting an EC and transferring it to more than one legal person during the validity period. 


Now, the Ministry makes a provision that A prior-Environmental Clearance granted for a specific project, except mining projects may be split amongst two or more legal persons, entitled to undertake the project and transferred during the validity to another legal person on application made by the transferor in the format specified on PARIVESH portal to the concerned Regulatory Authority along with requisite documents. The concerned Regulatory Authority shall split and transfer the prior-Environmental Clearance, on recommendation of the concerned Expert Appraisal Committee to the other legal persons for the respective projects.

So, the above notification does not apply to the mining projects.


The Ministry has said that it is necessary to create this provision to bring about greater uniformity and transparency. 

Narayani River Sand Mining Controversy gets clean chit from Joint Committee

26th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

In the matter of Sanjay Pandey versus State of U.P. & Ors., Original Application No. 415/2022, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) observed that the Joint Committee has reported no sand mining was taking place on the bank of river Narayani in Village DholaRamnagar, Khadda Tehsil, District Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh. 

It was also apprised to the Tribunal that the villagers were carrying on farming at the site in question. 

The Joint Committee also reported that even the applicant made statement before the Joint Committee that no illegal sand mining had taken place for the last three months.

The Tribunal also noted that no one appeared for the applicant and there was no objections filed to the report of the Joint Committee.    

On the light of the Joint Committee Report, NGT Principal Bench disposed the application. It, however, directed the District Mining Officer, Regional Officer, UPPCB and the Divisional Forest Officer, Kushi Nagar to carryout periodical monitoring and take appropriate steps for preventing illegal mining and in case any incident of illegal mining takes place, to take immediate appropriate remedial action in accordance with the law. 

DDG González: A stronger WTO is good for people, planet and prosperity

26th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

At the 2023 DHL Forum, WTO Deputy Director-General Anabel González emphasized the importance of a rules-based trading system to provide businesses worldwide with the transparency, openness, and predictability they need to navigate a complex trade policy landscape. She encouraged leaders in both the public and private sectors to invest in strengthening the WTO and collaborate with all stakeholders to build a 21st-century WTO that meets people's needs.

Despite ongoing shocks such as the war in Ukraine, stubborn inflation, and supply chain disruptions, international trade has remained remarkably robust. According to DDG González, trade has played a crucial role in supporting economic recovery and avoiding shortages by delivering food and other essential supplies where they are needed.

However, globalization is evolving, and businesses will need to adapt to geopolitical tensions, increased trade policy uncertainty, and a potentially fragmented global economy. DDG González emphasized the importance of reforming the WTO to safeguard rules-based trade and promote deeper trade cooperation. She also highlighted efforts to restore the WTO dispute settlement system, stating that "in a system where rules cannot be enforced, predictability suffers, and it becomes harder to negotiate new rules."

DDG González called on the business community to support trade facilitation initiatives worldwide, which could bring trade opportunities to more communities and more small- and women-owned businesses. She noted that several groups of WTO members are leading initiatives to respond to how businesses trade in the 21st century, such as an agreement to cut red tape and increase transparency, which will save service firms around US$150 billion in global trade costs annually.

DDG González further stated that a large group of WTO members is negotiating digital trade to deliver baseline standards and rules to promote greater cross-border interoperability, strengthen trust in digital markets, and help narrow digital divides. She also called on businesses to turn their net-zero ambition into action, promoting greater coherence across climate standards, enabling clean and circular business models, and coordinating efforts to fight plastic pollution.

In conclusion, DDG González emphasized that the WTO is essential, especially in times of crisis. She called on business leaders to make the case that reforming, improving, and modernizing the WTO is worth the effort.

Emaar MGF withdraws EC expansion application as SEIAA seeks site inspection  

25th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA), Haryana has released the Minutes of 156th Meeting held on 19th April 2023.

Emaar MGF Land Limited has withdrawn its application seeking Environment Clearance (EC) for the expansion of Group Housing Colony, Sector - 62, in Gurugram, Haryana. The company had submitted that construction has been carried out as per the condition of EC granted.  No violation of condition has been done.  However, due to the change in planning, the company has planned for the expansion. The matter was again taken up during 156th Meeting of SEIAA, Haryana held on 19th April 2023. The Authority  decided to constitute a sub-committee comprising of Member Secretary, SEIAA, Dr. R. Baskar, FGS (Ind), Member, SEIAA and Concerned Regional Officer, HSPCB to carry out inspection at the site to see the status and level of compliances in regard to the stipulated conditions, imposed in the EC letter dated 31st July 2017. Subsequently, Emaar MGF Land Limited has withdrawn its application.

Decision on several other projects were deferred, some more withdrawn.

Neverthrless, the SEIAA decided to Grant Environment Clearance (EC), under Category 5 (g) within the scope and meaning of EIA to the proposal of Panipat Coop. Sugar Mill. The Sugar Mill has planned to set up new 90 KLPD distillery consisting of 60 KLPD new plant based on B Heavy molasses from the new Sugar Mill and 30 KLPD grain Based distillery as supplementary raw material and with option of Spent Wash in specially designed Incineration Boiler. The Sugar Mill is located in -Dahar Village, Gohana Road, Panipat. 

Mallans get respite from NGT Southern Zone

24th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

In the Appeal No. 02 of 2023 (SZ) pertaining to Muraleedhara Mallan and Sreenivas A. Mallan versus Kerala State Pollution Control Board and Others, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) Southern Zone Bench, today, pronounced the Judgment Reserved on 17th April 2023.

In the Judgment, the Bench comprising, Smt. Justice Pushpa Sathyanarayana, Judicial Member and Dr. Satyagopal Korlapati, Expert Member hold that the consent issued in favour of Mukkath Fuels by the Kerala State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) is not in conformity with the criteria prescribed in the office memorandums referred in the case and also the circulars of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and the KSPCB. In such circumstances, unless the siting criteria prescribed therein are satisfied by the Mukkath Fuels, the consent issued by the KSPCB in PCB/ALP/ICE-1917/2020 dated 20th January 2020 cannot be sustained and the same is liable to be set aside. 

The appellants, Muraleedhara Mallan and Sreenivas A. Mallan, residents of Alappuzha District, were aggrieved due to the proposed construction by Mukkath Fuels at a distance of hardly 20 meters from their properties, residential buildings and wells. Hence, directly affected by the establishment of petrol pump by Mukkath Fuels

According to the appellants the guidelines of the CPCB dated 7th January 2020 laid down the siting criteria that new retail outlet shall not be located within the radial distance of 50 meters from schools, hospitals and residential areas. The said guidelines specifically stated that in case there is constraint in providing 50 meter distance, additional safety measures prescribed by Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organization (PESO). However, in no case the distance between the new retail outlet and school, hospitals and residential areas shall be less than 30 meters. 

The Appellate Authority passed an order in the matter on 20th January 2023 finding that "consent to establish" was issued on 20th January 2020 before the guidelines of the CPCB dated 7th January 2020 was issued under circular dated 24th February 2020. 

It was observed that the the petrol pump company has obtained the consent from the KSPCB based on the circular dated 9th August 2004, which provides the siting criteria for industries other than stone crushers. It states that: “it is desirable to have a minimum set back of 3 meters between the boundary and the plant building to avoid construction of factory buildings along or too close to the boundary wall. The setback can be utilised for the development of greenbelt. In case of industries falling in green/orange categories of small scale industries, the requirement of minimum set back may be dispensed with. Where necessary, the minimum distance may be enhanced for reasons to be recorded in writing. The above criteria will be implemented with immediate effect and will be reviewed after 6 months”. 

In the meanwhile, the office memorandum issued by the CPCB clarifying that cut of date for applicability of siting criteria referred in the guidelines for setting up of new petrol pump dated 7th January 2021 was issued on 29th January 2021. The said clarification states: “In this regard, it is clarified that the siting criteria for new retail outlets is to be complied with in cases where construction of retail outlets by oil marketing companies commenced on or after 7th January 2020. In other words, the siting criteria will not apply to those cases where PESO prior clearance/initial approval has been obtained and subsequently construction has been started by the OMC before 7th January 2020”. 

It was relied that the CPCB office memorandum dated 29th January 2021 followed by the circular of KSPCB dated 4th February 2021 make it amply clear that unless and otherwise the retail outlets have commenced their constructions on or before 7th January 2020 the circulars would be made applicable. 

However, in the instant case of Mukkath Fuels, KSPCB admitted, and it was also apparent from the building permit issued to the company, the commencement of the construction, if any, could be possible only after the cut off date of 7th January 2020. 

Joint Committee submits Factual Report to NGT Principal Bench on Singrauli, Sonebhadra air pollution 

24th April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

In the matter of Pankaj Kumar Mishra Vs Union of India & Ors. in Original Application No. 862 of 2022, the three-member Joint committee has submitted its report before the National Green Tribunal (NGT). The grievance is about transportation of fly ash by various thermal power stations located at Singrauli and Sonebhadra region are causing huge air pollution on the roads and local residential areas and the authorities responsible for monitoring and supervising such transportation are not acting in accordance with provisions of law and 2013 and 2019 Guidelines laid down in this regard by Central Pollution Control Board.

The Committee visited the Singrauli, Madhya Pradesh area during 9th to 11th February 2023. The Committee has submitted a factual report based on the assessment of the quantum of coal production/fly ash generation, its loading and unloading, transportation practices, vehicles cover, road routes of coal/ash transportation, road conditions on the coal/ash transporting routes, ash utilization etc. 

As per the report, total consented capacity of 5 TPPs is 12140MW. All the TPPs are having valid Consent to Operate (CTO) issued from Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board (MPPCB). 

First ever Census shows 2.42 Million Water Bodies 

Only 2.9% water bodies in Urban Areas, 55.2% owned by Private

23rd April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The Ministry of Jal Shakti has stated that for the first time in the history of the country, it has conducted the first-ever census of water bodies across the nation. The census provides a comprehensive inventory of India's water resources, including natural and man-made water bodies like ponds, tanks, lakes, and more, and to collect data on the encroachment of water bodies. The Census also highlighted disparities between rural and urban areas and varying levels of encroachment and revealed crucial insights into the country's water resources. 

As per the study, 24,24,540 water bodies have been enumerated in the country, out of which 97.1% (23,55,055) are in rural areas and only 2.9% (69,485) are in urban areas.

59.5% of water bodies are ponds, followed by tanks (15.7%), reservoirs (12.1%), Water conservation schemes/percolation tanks/check dams (9.3%), lakes (0.9%) and others (2.5%).

Surprisingly, 55.2% of water bodies are owned by private entities whereas 44.8% of water bodies are in the domain of public ownership.

Top 5 States in terms of number of water bodies are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Assam which constitute around 63% of the total water bodies in the country. However, in terms of area covered under water bodies in urban areas the top 5 States areas are West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh and Tripura, whereas in rural areas, top 5 States are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Assam.

Snow Biking Illegal in Gulmarg?

23rd April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

Mushtaq Ahmad Malik came with a grievance before the National Green Tribunal (NGT) against use of snow bikes in and around the Gulmarg Wildlife Sanctuary and Eco Sensitive Zone in terms of notification bearing S.O. 2182(E). dated 7th June 2021 issued by the Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change & Ors. under the E(P) Act, 1986. Case set out in the application is that snow bikes use petrol which has harmful impact on the ecology. Weight of the bikes impacts the soil and the vegetation underneath the snow. Such activities also result in encroachments and loss of grasslands. 

The Original Application No. 287/2023 has also relied upon letter dated 21st February 2023 of Wildlife Range Gulmarg addressed to the Director Tourism, Srinagar on the subject of Unauthorized plying of Snow bikes in Gulmarg Wildlife Sanctuary at Kangdori Gulmarg.

The NGT Principal Bench duly considered the application but without expressing any opinion on merits at this stage, it directed for investigation of the matter. Disposing the application, the Tribunal has called for remedial actions to be taken in accordance with law as found appropriate by the ACS, Forest and Environment, J & K. 

What NGT said on complaint against noise pollution due to Railway Ops?

23rd April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

There was a grievance in the National Green Tribunal (NGT) against use of horn by the trains resulting in violation of Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000. The case of the applicants Ashok Malik and Anr. in Original Application No. 291/2023 was that the residents of Sundar Nagar, Subash Nagar, Gadi Malyan, Shivji Colony, Adarsh Nagar, Dhaula Bhatta, Kalyani Pura, Nehru Nagar in Ajmer and have been suffering due to noise pollution generated by the operation of Railways. 

On 20th April 2023, the NGT Principal Bench considered the matter of common knowledge that Railway operations serve large number of population and generation of noise in their operations cannot be wished away. Horns are required to be blown as per applicable ‘whistle code.’ Thus, while noise free environment is necessary, essential activities have to be conducted in absence of any other options. 

Infra-II EAC recommends Junagadh Municipal Corporation Project, Surai TSDF, Consultant’s Errors fails Panipat Municipal’s Proposal

22nd April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

The 103rd Meeting of the Expert Appraisal Committee (Infra-II) of  the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) was held on 10th April 2023. The EAC (Infra-II) deals with appraisal for environmental clearances (EC) of projects related to airports 7(a); common hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities 7(d); common bio-medical waste treatment facilities 7(da); common effluent treatment plants 7(h); common municipal solid waste management facility 7(i); building and construction 8(a) and townships and area development projects 8(b).

Deliberating on the proposal of Municipal Corporation Panipat for implementation of remediation and reclamation of existing dumpsite and construction, operation and maintenance of Sanitary Landfill at Village Nimbri, Panipat Dumpsite, the EAC pointed at the Consultant’s mistake causing confusion throughout the proposal. The EAC returned the proposal.


The proposal from Junagadh Municipal Corporation seeking EC for Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management Facility at existing Dumpsite at Village Plasva, in Junagadh District of Gujarat got EAC’s recommendation.

The EAC has mandated online monitoring of pollutants provided as per CPCB guidelines for monitoring particulate matter, SO2, NOx and CO from the incinerator stack. The periodical monitoring of Dioxins and Furans in the Stack emissions shall be carried out. 

There is a condition that no fresh water be used except for potable use.

The EAC has also stipulated a condition for collection of Leachates and utilised within the project after proper treatment. The proponent has been asked to submit the details of leachate collection and treatment system to be installed to concerned Integrated Regional Office of the Ministry. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) should be performed on leachates. 

Another proposal from Gujarat was submitted by Varni Enviro Care Pvt. Ltd. It was seeking EC for the Integrated      Common      Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF and Incineration) in Village Surai, Tehsil Chotila, District Surendranagar, Gujarat. The EAC okayed the proposal for grant of EC. The EAC has mandated the project proponent to ensure that the project fulfil all the provisions of Hazardous and other Wastes (Management and Trans-boundary Movement) Rules, 2016 and the ‘Protocol for Performance Evaluation and Monitoring’ for the same as published by the CPCB including collection, transportation, design etc. 

The EAC has stipulated a condition stating “Gas generated in the Landfill should be properly collected, monitored and flared.”

It is also mandated that the company has to ensure treatment of wastewater generated from the process including leachates arising from premises by installation of Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) System of adequate capacity. Treated wastewater has to be reused within the project. It is also mandated that the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test be performed on leachates.  


The EAC also deliberated on the Delhi High Court Order dated 14th September 2022 in Writ Petition (Civil) No. 13309 of 2022 in the matter of Mihir Moitra Vs Union of India. It was noted that a letter dated 21st March 2023 addressed to Joint Secretary, IA (Policy) wherein the Regional Officer (RO), Nagpur has requested to revise provisions related to allocation of Environment Management Plan (EMP) funds. The RO has mentioned that the State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) may be asked to stipulate a condition in the EC of building projects that the Project proponent should deposit 30% of EMP cost to the State Forest Department towards tree plantation/ distribution of seedlings, rainwater harvesting/water conservation. After discussions, EAC has preferred not to comment on this matter as it is a policy matter to be further examined by IA (Policy).  

The Meeting was held under the Chairmanship of Dr. Promode Kant. Dr. Ashish Kumar, Member Secretary and 9 other Expert Members were present in the Meeting on Physical or virtual mode.

Dr Jitendra Singh reiterates India's commitment to Sustainable Development on World Earth Day 2023 

22nd April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

Dr. Jitendra Singh, the Union Minister of State, emphasized India's commitment to sustainable development during an event organized by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in celebration of World Earth Day. He reiterated the "LiFE" movement launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and stressed the need for human-centric, collective efforts to address the challenges faced by our planet.

Grammy Award winning Indian music composer and environmentalist, Rickey Kej, was the special guest of the event, and his new music composition on ‘Earth and Environment’ was launched by Dr. Jitendra Singh. Earth Day is an annual event observed on April 22 to demonstrate support for environmental protection. This year’s theme, 'Invest In Our Planet,' encourages us all to invest in a better future  for  our planet by tackling environmental issues such as climate change, biodiversity, and waste reduction.

The idea of LiFE was introduced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during COP26, promoting an environmentally conscious lifestyle that focuses on ‘mindful and deliberate utilization’ instead of ‘mindless and wasteful consumption.' The Ministry of Earth Sciences provides weather, climate, ocean, coastal state, hydrological and seismological services, and its services have been effectively used by different agencies and state governments for saving human lives and minimizing damages due to natural disasters.

The Ministry has been supporting the celebration of Earth Day/Ozone Day to spread awareness and sensitize the general public on issues concerning Earth and Earth Sciences in the country. Earth Day is being celebrated   at   more  than  75  places/schools/colleges/institutions across the country with a focus on girl students/differently-abled students and aspirational districts.

More than 7,500 students/volunteers are participating in activities such as sowing seeds and watching them grow as plants, plantation, slogan rallies, paintings, and popular lectures organized at different institutes, including at MoES HQ. Dr. M Ravichandran, Secretary, Ministry of Earth Sciences, reiterated the Ministry's commitment to furthering the LiFE movement and sustainable development in India.

WMO annual report highlights continuous advance of climate change

21st April 2023 YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Blogger

From mountain peaks to ocean depths, climate change continued its advance in 2022, according to the annual report from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Droughts, floods and heatwaves affected communities on every continent and cost many billions of dollars. Antarctic sea ice fell to its lowest extent on record and the melting of some European glaciers was, literally, off the charts.

The State of the Global Climate 2022 shows the planetary scale changes on land, in the ocean and in the atmosphere caused by record levels of heat-trapping greenhouse gases. For global temperature, the years 2015-2022 were the eight warmest on record despite the cooling impact of a La Niña event for the past three years. Melting of glaciers and sea level rise - which again reached record levels in 2022 - will continue to up to thousands of years. “While greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and the climate continues to change, populations worldwide continue to be gravely impacted by extreme weather and climate events. For example, in 2022, continuous drought in East Africa, record breaking rainfall in Pakistan and record-breaking heatwaves in China and Europe affected tens of millions, drove food insecurity, boosted mass migration, and cost billions of dollars in loss and damage,” said WMO Secretary-General Prof. Petteri Taalas.

“However, collaboration amongst UN agencies has proven to be very effective in addressing humanitarian impacts induced by extreme weather and climate events, especially in reducing associated mortality and economic losses. The UN Early Warnings for All Initiative aims to fill the existing capacity gap to ensure that every person on earth is covered by early warning services. At the moment about one hundred countries do not have adequate weather services in place. Achieving this ambitious task requires improvement of observation networks, investments in early warning, hydrological and climate service capacities,” he said.

The new WMO report is accompanied by a story map, which provides information for policy makers on how the climate change indicators are playing out, and which also shows how improved technology makes the transition to renewable energy cheaper and more accessible than ever.

In addition to climate indicators, the report focuses on impacts. Rising undernourishment has been exacerbated by the compounded effects of hydrometeorological hazards and COVID-19, as well as of protracted conflicts and violence.

Throughout the year, hazardous climate and weather-related events drove new population displacement and worsened conditions for many of the 95 million people already living in displacement at the beginning of the year, according to the report.

The report also puts a spotlight on ecosystems and the environment and shows how climate change is affecting recurring events in nature, such as when trees blossom, or birds migrate.

The WMO State of the Global Climate report was released ahead of Earth Day 2023. Its key findings echo the message of UN Secretary-General António Guterres for Earth Day.

“We have the tools, the knowledge, and the solutions. But we must pick up the pace. We need accelerated climate action with deeper, faster emissions cuts to limit global temperature rise to 1.5 degree Celsius. We also need massively scaled-up investments in adaptation and resilience, particularly for the most vulnerable countries and communities who have done the least to cause the crisis,” said Mr Guterres.

The WMO report follows the release of the State of the Climate in Europe report by the EU’s Copernicus Climate Change Service. It complements the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment report, which includes data up to 2020.

Dozens of experts contribute to the report, including National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) and Global Data and Analysis Centers, as well as Regional Climate Centres, the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), the Global Cryosphere Watch and Copernicus Climate Change Service operated by ECMWF.

United Nations partners include the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (UNESCO-IOC), International Organization for Migration (IOM), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) and the World Food Programme (WFP).